Science Unit and Lessons

Science Grade 6

 

Outcome: SS6.2- Assess the efficacy of various methods of representing and interpreting astronomical phenomena, including phases, eclipses, and seasons.

 

Indicator: Model the relative positions of the sun, Earth, and moon to demonstrate moon phases and lunar and solar eclipses.

Equipment:

  • Bright light source
  • Styrofoam ball for each student
  • Pen, small wooden stick, or skewer (To mount Styrofoam ball)

Safety: There are no safety precautions

Preconceptions:

  • Some students will think that the phases of the moon are caused by the Earth’s shadow

To do before the lesson:

  • Make power point of the phases of the moon to show during the activity.

 Lesson:

Engage:

  • Read the book: “ Papa, Please Get the Moon For Me” by Eric Carle to get the students engaged about moon phases.
  • Ask each student to get out a piece of paper and ask them to write down possible explanations for the phases of the moon based on their own explanations or what they have heard.
  • Allow students to share their explanations (do not make comments on their explanations)
  • Tell them to put these explanations aside and we will come back to them

Explore:

  • Give each student a Styrofoam ball and a wooden skewer
  • Place the light source at the front of the room, turn it on and turn the classroom lights off
  • Tell them that this Styrofoam ball represents the moon and the bright light represents the sun and the student’s head represents Earth.
  • Tell them to hold the Styrofoam ball in front of them and slightly above their head because the moon in space is slightly above Earth. Ask the question: What part of the “moon” do you see? (Show them the new moon picture on slideshow)
  • Tell the students to turn their body slightly to your left while still holding the moon in front of them. Ask them what they see. (Show waxing crescent on slideshow)
  • Ask students to turn slightly left again. Ask them what they see. (Show Quarter moon picture on slideshow)
  • Tell students to keep turning slightly left and ask them what they see. (Show waxing gibbous photo)
  • Tell them to keep turning left until their back is to the light source and ask them what moon phase this is (Show full moon photo) Ask them the question: Does the moon produce light?
  • Tell them to turn slightly left again (show waning gibbous photo)
  • Ask students to turn slightly left again. What is this moon phase called? (Show photo of last quarter moon) Ask the question: Do we only see the same side of the moon from earth? Why?
  • Tell them to keep turning slightly left. What is this moon called? (show them photo of waning crescent moon)

 

Evaluation:

  • Ask students to look again at the explanations they wrote at the beginning of class. Ask them if their explanations were true. Ask students the questions: Where does the moon’s light come from? For the students who said the moon’s phases are caused by the earth’s shadow, ask them how this model disproves that theory. Does the moon produce light? What happens when the moon, sun, and earth are lined up exactly? (This question could lead to an Elaboration lesson where students have to come up with an explanation for lunar and solar eclipses using the Styrofoam balls and light source.)
  • Formative Assessment: Ask students to write the following question and their answer on a piece of paper as an exit slip: So, after doing this model, what causes the phases of the moon?

 

_________________________________________________________________

Title of Unit Principles of Flight Grade Level 6
Subject Science Time Frame March 3rd- 24th
Developed By Shelby Hack
Stage 1 – Identify Desired Results
Learning Outcomes and I CAN statements.
FL6.1

Examine connections between human fascination with flight and technologies and careers based on the scientific principles of flight. [CP, DM, SI]

I can make connections between human fascination with flight as well as jobs that are based on the principles of flight

FL6.2

Investigate how the forces of thrust, drag, lift, and gravity act on living things and constructed devices that fly through the air. [SI]

I can determine the science behind why things are able to fly

FL6.3

Design a working prototype of a flying object that meets specified performance criteria. [TPS]

I am able to build a flying object based on the principles of flight.

Key Understandings

What understandings about the big ideas are desired? (what you want students to understand & be able to use several years from now)

What misunderstandings are predictable?

Questions for Deep Understanding

What provocative questions will foster inquiry into the content? (open-ended questions that stimulate thought and inquiry linked to the content of the enduring understanding)

Students will understand…

  • The principles of flight and what causes objects to fly
  • the four forces of flight
  • how the design of planes has changed over time and why
Content specific….

  • why did the design of planes change over time?
  • how the four forces of flight effect an objects ability to fly

FNMI, multicultural, cross-curricular…

  • Analyze some objects that first nations peoples have used that are based on the principles of flight
  • This unit can be tied into art as students are creating their own flying objects.
Knowledge:

What knowledge will student acquire as a result of this unit?  This content knowledge may come from the indicators, or might also address pre-requisite knowledge that students will need for this unit.

Skills

What skills will students acquire as a result of this unit?  List the skills and/or behaviours that students will be able to exhibit as a result of their work in this unit.  These will come from the indicators.

Students will know…

  • The four forces that affect flight
  • How the concept of lift enables devices to fly
  • the effect drag  and thrust have on flying devices
  • the technical problems that had to be overcome in flying devices
  • the history of flying devices
Students will be able to…

  • create their own object based on the principles of flight
  • explain the difference between thrust, drag, lift, gravity.
  • understand the concept of flight and how devices are able to fly.
Stage 2 – Assessment Evidence
Assessment Evidence

Through what evidence (work samples, conversations, observations, performances, quizzes, tests, journals, presentations or other means) will students demonstrate achievement of the outcomes? Identify both formative and summative assessments you will use throughout the unit and indicate which outcome(s) each assessment will be evidence for (note that one assessment can provide evidence on more than one outcome). Consider including authentic performance task(s) where students will demonstrate the desired knowledge, understandings, and skills? (Typically, a performance task describes a scenario or situation that requires students to apply knowledge and skills to demonstrate their understanding in a real life situation).

NOTE: You must also include one Assessment rubric for one of your identified Summative Assessments which clearly presents the criteria for assessment.

Overview

Students will be taking part in numerous hands-on activities. While they are doing this, I will be walking around and monitoring the students. I will also be asking them guiding questions to further their learning. I want students to figure things out for themselves through experimentation and making connections. I will be facilitating their learning rather than feeding them information.
Formative Assessment

  • Kahoot! – The students will take part in a Kahoot questionnaire. I will be able to see where students are at in terms of understanding the content.
  • Students will also be doing multiple journal entries as well as exit slips so I am quickly able to see if they are understanding the content.
  • We will be having many conversations as a class where I will be asking them guiding questions.

Summative Assessment

  • Presentation- Students will be doing a quick poster presentation on_______. The rubric is attached.
  • At the end of the unit, students will be creating their own flying device with a partner. The rubric is attached.
Student Self-Assessment

How will students reflect upon or self-assess their learning? Provide at least three examples of how you can engage students in self-assessments.

Journal Entries- students will be doing multiple journal entries where they are able to reflect on their learning.
Exit Slips- Students will also be filling out exit slips following a lesson
Stage 3 – Learning Plan

What teaching and learning experiences will you use to:

  • achieve the desired results identified in Stage 1?
  • equip students to complete the assessment tasks identified in Stage 2?
Where are your students headed?  Where have they been?  How will you make sure the students know where they are going?

What experiences do the learners bring to the unit?  How have the interests of the learners been ascertained?  Have the learners been part of the pre-planning in any way?  What individual needs do you anticipate will need to be addressed?

Learning environment:  Where can this learning best occur?  How can the physical environment be arranged to enhance learning?

From working with this group of students and talking with the co-op teacher, these students do not have much previous knowledge about the principles of flight. Therefore, I will have to start from the beginning and clearly state what flight is, the four forces that affect flight, and so on.

I will be posted I CAN statements on the board each week so students know where they are headed.

I have made this unit fun and interactive where students are able to do many hands on activities and learn for themselves. I will be facilitating their learning instead of BEING their learning.

How will you engage students at the beginning of the time frame/unit? (Motivational set)
Students will start by doing a hands on activity to get them excited about flight. They will be put into groups and asked to construct paper airplanes by using different materials. The goal is to see which airplane stays in the air the longest. Doing a fun, hands-on activity at the start of a unit gets students excited and also forces them to ask questions and to develop possible answers without even knowing it.
What events will help students experience and explore the enduring understandings and essential questions in the unit?  How will you equip them with needed skills and knowledge? Note: For this assignment you must include full details for five days only – see unit planning guidelines page.
# Outcome(s) and

Indicators

Instructional Strategies/Process   

Learning Tasks/Experiences

Assessment Resources/Materials
1 FL 6.2

a. Diagram how the forces of thrust, drag, lift, and gravity act on living things or devices that fly through the air.
e. Determine how lift is affected by the shape of a surface by planning and carrying out steps to investigate the effect of wing shape on lift.
FL 6.3

b)  b. Construct a prototype of a flying object that meets a specified performance and aesthetic criteria.

e)  e. Work collaboratively to collect relevant observations and data to evaluate the performance of a prototype of an object that will fly.

g)  g. Analyze personally collected data.

This lesson will start off with watching a short video about the history of planes followed by a group discussion. Students will then form groups and experiment with different materials and designs to create a paper plane. Before students get to work on this, they must write a hypothesis. The goal is to see which object stays in the air the longest. There will then be a group discussion about why some designs worked better than others. Without even knowing it, students will have figured out the four forces of flight.
***Brads explain lesson**
Teacher will be conducting formative assessment by walking around and facilitating student learning and asking questions. By having the discussion at the end of the activity, I will be able to identify if students understand the content. ·      Paper:

o   White Copy Paper

o   Gift Wrapping Paper

o   Construction paper

·      Tape

·      Scissors

·      Airplane Folding Instructions

·      Student Work Sheet

2 FL. 6.2
a.Diagram how the forces of thrust, drag, lift, and gravity act on living things or devices that fly through the air.
b.Use scientific terminology appropriately (e.g., thrust, drag, lift, and gravity) when communicating ideas about the principles of flight.
We will start with a recap of last days class. We will then go over the powerpoint that explains the four forces of flight. We will then do a Kahoot! to further student understanding.
***have flight definition.

Lift: Bernoulli’s principle

Formative- I will be able to tell how well students have grasped the four forces of flight by the answers I receive on Kahoot!.
  • Powerpoint
  • i-Pads
3  FL6.2

                                           

b. Use scientific terminology appropriately (e.g., thrust, drag, lift, and gravity) when communicating ideas about the principles of flight.

c.  Generate questions related to the principles of flight and rephrase those questions in a testable form (e.g., rephrase a question such as “When is drag important in flight?” to “What is the best design to increase drag and slow an item from falling?”).

e.  Describe and represent methods for altering drag in flying devices, such as a bird spreading wings or an airplane employing flaps.                                            

g. Provide examples of how science and technology have been used to solve problems related to drag in devices that fly.

To start the lesson, we will then go over drag and generate questions about it. Students will then do a fun activity in their table groups to demonstrate drag where they will be given a lego man, and they have to construct some kind of device that will keep him in the air for a long period of time.   I will formatively assess students by asking them questions about drag to determine if they understand the topic.

While students are constructing their parachute I will be circulating the room and asking them questions that are specific to their design.

One per team

     Scissors

     Timers

     Scotch Tape

     Lego People (or same weighted drop items)

     String/Thread (same length for each group or roll per group if available)

     Yard sticks
 Not enough for all teams (so groups have to come up with different options)

 Plastic shopping bags

 Paper bags

     Paper

    ■      Newspaper

    ■      Tissue paper

    ■      Printer paper

4 FL. 6.1

a. Observe and describe physical characteristics and adaptations that enable birds (e.g., ravens, hawks, loons, geese, hummingbirds, sandpipers, cranes, and sparrows), insects (e.g., mosquitoes, dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, wasps, and butterflies), and bats to fly.

We will start the lesson by brainstorming together on polleverywhere.com. After a few minutes we will have a group discussion about the answers they came up with.
We will then go over the powerpoint that explains how different animals fly.
Throughout the powerpoint I will be asking many questions to engage students in their thinking. I will be able to formatively assess the students by asking these questions.
  • powerpoint
  • i-Pads
5 FL 6.1

c. Examine the role of inspiration and aesthetic design in the development of flying devices (e.g., initial attempts at trying to fly were based on observations of birds).

Students will watch a video about wingsuits and I will stop the video and ask the students questions from the video.

Students will then research a flying device( wingsuit, drones, helicopter, airplane/jet, rockit, blimp, etc.) Students will answer four questions about the flying device that they chose. After students have finished their research, they will share their information with their table group

 I will walk around the classroom and formatively assess the students by listening to their conversations. Students will also hand in their page where they answered the four questions about their flying device. If they answered the four questions correctly and put effort into their answers, they will receive a mark of 5.
  • wingsuit video
  • Flying device handout
  • i-Pads
6  FL. 6.1

d.   Research technological problems that had to be overcome to develop devices that fly (e.g., balloons, kites, gliders, airplanes, helicopters, and rockets) and explain how various creative solutions to those problems have resulted in the development of flying devices with different designs.

e. Discuss historical and current contributions of individuals, including Canadians, who have contributed to scientific understanding and technological developments related to flight.

 **This will take up to two lessons

We will start the class off by watching the history of aviation youtube video. We will go over the history in detail(PowerPoint) following the video. Students will then take part in a jigsaw activity. They will start in their normal table groups and will each be given a short passage about a specific person from the video.They will read the short passage and then share their findings with their peers. ****JENS ELABORATE LESSON ***

Formative: As students are doing the jigsaw activity, I will be walking around the room listening to the students share their findings with their peers.
  • powerpoint
  • history of aviation video.
  • Plane handout
7 FL 6.3 For their final project, students will be constructing their own bottle rockets. First, we must recap everything that we have learned in previous lessons. We will go over the powerpoint and do a recap on the importance of thrust, drag, lift and gravity. We will also go over how animals and other devices fly to get them thinking about the shape of the body of their rocket as well as wings, etc. Students will then form into partners or groups of three. They will first draw a design of their rocket and discuss which design will enable their rocket to travel a far distance. Students will then construct their rocket and we will take them outside to have a competition. Formative:

I will be asking the students questions prior to designing their rockets. The questions will come from previous knowledge that they have learned throughout the unit. I will be able to check for student understanding. Students will also be handing in the question sheet.

  • bottles
  • tape
  • construction paper
  • white paper
  • cardboard
 
 

Principles of Flight

Science Grade 6

Lesson #1

 

Outcome: FL6.2 Investigate how the forces of thrust, drag, lift, and gravity act on living things and constructed devices that fly through the air. [SI]

 

  1. Diagram how the forces of thrust, drag, lift, and gravity act on living things or devices that fly through the air.

 

Purpose: Get students excited about flight

 

Materials:

  •      Paper:

o   White Copy Paper

o   Gift Wrapping Paper

o   Construction paper

  •      Tape
  •      Scissors
  •      Airplane Folding Instructions
  •      Student WorkSheet

 

Safety:

  •   Make sure to tell the students not to throw paper airplanes at each other.
  •  Students are safe when using scissors

 

Lesson:

 

Engage (10 minutes)

 

Watch: History and Evolution of Aviation – 2:02

After Watching ASK:

  •      What did you notice about the evolution of planes?

o   Possible Answers:

  •  Propellers were added to the plane to help it fly.
  •  Wingspan changed for bigger planes.
  •  Engines were put on planes to help them move.
  •  They became more (sleek, aerodynamic, etc.).
  •      What do you think helped planes fly?

o   Possible Answers:

  •  The engines added to the plane to move the moving parts.
  •  Gravity
  •  Air
  •  Pushing the plane

 

Explore: (35-40 minutes)

 

Have students work in their table groups.

 

  1. Handout worksheet and design building instructions
  2. Tell students that their task is to make a paper airplane that they think will stay in the air the longest and fly the farthest. Each group must try experimenting with all three types of paper.
  3. Once students have come up with their ideal flying device, each group will test theirs out in the hallway.
  4. Before going in the hallway, remind students that we need to be quiet and respect the other classrooms
  5. After showing their flying devices, we will have a discussion.

 

ASK:

 

  • which airplane flew the best? why?
  • what paper seemed to work the best? why? (using heavier paper made is fly further because there is more weight to it. Having paper flat made it more aerodynamic. this paper held its shape. etc)
  • was the bigger or smaller plane more successful? why? ( the bigger the plane, the slower it falls to the ground. The smaller the plane the faster it goes.)
  • what happened to the plane when you threw it? What sorts of movements did you notice?
  • it goes up and down as it descends to the ground
  • it glides through the air fast
  • what are some things to keep in mind when creating your plane? (folding properly, making sure the paper is smooth)

 

Evaluation:

 

Formative: I will walk around the room watching the students build their planes and making sure their following instructions. I will also be asking them guiding questions.

Students will also fill out an exit slip asking what they learned about flight if time permits.

________________________________________________________________

 

Science Grade 6

Principles of flight

Lesson 2

 

Outcome FL6.2- Investigate how the forces of thrust, drag, lift, and gravity act on living things and constructed devices that fly through the air. [SI]

 

  1. Diagram how the forces of thrust, drag, lift, and gravity act on living things or devices that fly through the air.
  2. Use scientific terminology appropriately (e.g., thrust, drag, lift, and gravity) when communicating ideas about the principles of flight.

 

Purpose: For students to learn about the principles of flight and their impact on flying devices.

 

Materials:

  • Four forces of flight powerpoint.

 

Lesson:

 

Engage:

 

This lesson will start with a recap of the previous lesson.

  • What did you learn about flight from last day’s lesson?
  • Students will do a KWL chart. They will write about what they know about flight. How does a plane fly?

 

Explain:

 

  • Students will then do a Kahoot! on the four principles to further their understanding.

 

Evaluation:

 

  • Formative: I will be able to see if students are understanding the four forces of flight by the results from Kahoot.

 

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